The third and fourth tier of men's tennis tournaments are formed by the ATP World Tour 500 series, consisting of 11 tournaments, and the ATP World Tour 250 series with 40 tournaments.[90] Like the ATP World Tour Masters 1000, these events offer various amounts of prize money and the numbers refer to the amount of ranking points earned by the winner of a tournament.[83] The Dubai Tennis Championships offer the largest financial incentive to players, with total prize money of US$2,313,975 (2012).[91] These series have various draws of 28, 32, 48 and 56 for singles and 16 and 24 for doubles. It is mandatory for leading players to enter at least four 500 events, including at least one after the US Open.

In most professional play and some amateur competition, there is an officiating head judge or chair umpire (usually referred to as the umpire), who sits in a raised chair to one side of the court. The umpire has absolute authority to make factual determinations. The umpire may be assisted by line judges, who determine whether the ball has landed within the required part of the court and who also call foot faults. There also may be a net judge who determines whether the ball has touched the net during service. The umpire has the right to overrule a line judge or a net judge if the umpire is sure that a clear mistake has been made.[59]

What gives concrete the competitive edge? According to Fred Kolkmann, tennis and track division manager for Munson Inc., Glendale, Wis., concrete play courts are more durable, low maintenance, and crack resistant. Munson specializes in post-tensioned concrete and other types of play courts, and has won national and state awards for its concrete tennis court installations.
Best for Beginners: All right, most beginners aren’t going to want to drop $200 on a racket, but if you want something that is very forgiving no matter what type of player you are or what type of player you want to become. The overall feel is very plush, though it bears a deceptively high stiffness rating. It’s friendly with spin and minimizes how many of your shots go rogue over the fence. It allows you to move from power hitting to finesse games with ease and gives you a chance to find what feels best without pressuring you in one direction or another. Especially kind to off-center hits the 99.5 square-inch head gives you plenty of real estate for while the 11.3 oz weight makes it good for quickdraws. [Purchase: $190]

The International Tennis Federation (ITF) conducts a junior tour that allows juniors to establish a world ranking and an Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) or Women's Tennis Association (WTA) ranking. Most juniors who enter the international circuit do so by progressing through ITF, Satellite, Future, and Challenger tournaments before entering the main circuit. The latter three circuits also have adults competing in them. Some juniors, however, such as Australian Lleyton Hewitt and Frenchman Gaël Monfils, have catapulted directly from the junior tour to the ATP tour by dominating the junior scene or by taking advantage of opportunities given to them to participate in professional tournaments.


The first year with Kirill was brutal. The prescribed continental grip felt awkward when I first began to serve. I thought I was turning my shoulder, properly, to prepare to hit a backhand, but wasn’t. I thought I was, properly, following through on my forehand, and wasn’t. It was the strangest thing. I had no sense at times of what my body was doing. And that, to some extent — a frustrating and at times embarrassing extent — continues. And it continues despite the incessant midplay appeals from Kirill to correct this, correct that. One of the things about having a coach is that no one has watched how I move more intently since I was a toddler.
One of the many types of affordable racquets available to you is a junior tennis racquet. These are designed primarily for younger players, and they come in relatively small sizes in order to accommodate these players. It's never too early to start learning and practicing tennis, and with junior racquets, people of all ages can get in on the fun. Not only are these items short in length, but they are also comprised of lightweight materials that allow for smooth, maneuverable motions when swinging. These racquets typically range in size from 19 inches to 26 inches. Even though these tennis items are meant to be used by younger players, a junior tennis racquet can be used by anyone who prefers the feel of a smaller racquet.

Learn to play doubles tennis. Doubles tennis has two players on each side instead of one. You’ll use the wider court dimensions, but the rest of the scoring and rules remain the same. The big challenge for doubles tennis beginners is to learn how to interact with a teammate. Ask other tennis-playing friends to teach you the best strategies for doubles tennis.[23]
For length, 21 to 26 inches (53 to 66 cm) is normally the junior racket range, while 27 inches (69 cm) is for stronger more physically-mature players. Some are also available at lengths of 27.5 to 29 inches (70 to 74 cm). The Gamma Big Bubba was produced with a 32 inches (81 cm) length but it is no longer legal in that length. Gamma responded by changing the length of the grip portion of the racket, to continue sales. The length restriction was based on the concern that such long rackets would make the serve too dominant, but that concern has never been objectively supported with testing. Moreover, some players, such as John Isner, are much taller and have longer arms than average professionals (and especially low stature ones), giving them a much larger advantage in terms of height for the service than is possible with several inches of racket length. This makes the length restriction more questionable. Finally, the professionals who nearly always choose to use the longest rackets typically choose them because they use two-handed groundstrokes for both forehand and backhand, using the extra length to improve their reach. An example is Marion Bartoli. As this type of player is not dominant in the sport, or even close to being average in terms of per capita representation, the length restriction seems even more unnecessary. Despite Prince's attempt to market longer length "longbody" rackets in the 1990s, standard length remains the overwhelming choice of players, further negating the argument in favor of the length restriction. When most players who choose to use a longer racket than 27 inches (69 cm) choose one, they typically only use a 27.5 inches (70 cm) model, rather than one approaching 30 inches (76 cm). Longer rackets were introduced by Dunlop[10]
Kirill is no longer a club pro full time. He has begun working in commercial real estate at an office in Manhattan, limiting his coaching to the weekends and a few nights a week. I meet him once in a while for lunch or dinner, and one night last month at the Oyster Bar, he was explaining to me how the cold calls he made to potential customers as he tried to get their business was a lot like tennis — how, when you are playing a new opponent, you have to feel him out, and how ultimately it is up to you to control the exchange as best you can and come away a winner. Most of all, he emphasized, you can never lose confidence.
Hit the ball with an “up and over” action as if you were throwing the racket at it — and, after hitting the ball, follow through with your swing. This follow through will propel you forward into the court, prepared to hit the returned shot. Good! You’re progressing well in your efforts to learn to play tennis! If you’re unhappy with your serve — perhaps even miss the ball when you swing — don’t worry; this is common when you first learn to play tennis.
It wasn't until the 16th century that rackets came into use, and the game began to be called "tennis", from the French term tenez, which can be translated as "hold!", "receive!" or "take!", an interjection used as a call from the server to his opponent.[6] It was popular in England and France, although the game was only played indoors where the ball could be hit off the wall. Henry VIII of England was a big fan of this game, which is now known as real tennis.[7] During the 18th and early 19th centuries, as real tennis declined, new racket sports emerged in England.[8]
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