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The rules of modern tennis have changed little since the 1890s. Two exceptions are that from 1908 to 1961 the server had to keep one foot on the ground at all times, and the adoption of the tiebreak in the 1970s. A recent addition to professional tennis has been the adoption of electronic review technology coupled with a point-challenge system, which allows a player to contest the line call of a point, a system known as Hawk-Eye.
A tennis court is the venue where the sport of tennis is played. It is a firm rectangular surface with a low net stretched across the center. The same surface can be used to play both doubles and singles matches. A variety of surfaces can be used to create a tennis court, each with its own characteristics which affect the playing style of the game.
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Wilson Jack Kramer Autograph Midsize Wood Racquet 4 1/2. Vintage graphite/wood mix frame. The frame and head are absolutely straight. It was strung briefly before. There is a very slight scuff on the head (see photo) which may have come from years of storage/handling or someone swinging the racquet, but that’s it. The grip and the rest of the racquet show the like-new condition of this collectable racquet.


In Tennis: A Cultural History, Heiner Gillmeister reveals that on December 8, 1874, British army officer Walter Clopton Wingfield wrote to Harry Gem, commenting that he (Wingfield) had been experimenting with his version of lawn tennis “for a year and a half”.[13] In December 1873, Wingfield designed and patented a game which he called sphairistikè (Greek: σφαιριστική, meaning "ball-playing"), and was soon known simply as "sticky" – for the amusement of guests at a garden party on his friend's estate of Nantclwyd Hall, in Llanelidan, Wales.[14] According to R. D. C. Evans, turfgrass agronomist, "Sports historians all agree that [Wingfield] deserves much of the credit for the development of modern tennis."[8][15] According to Honor Godfrey, museum curator at Wimbledon, Wingfield "popularized this game enormously. He produced a boxed set which included a net, poles, rackets, balls for playing the game – and most importantly you had his rules. He was absolutely terrific at marketing and he sent his game all over the world. He had very good connections with the clergy, the law profession, and the aristocracy and he sent thousands of sets out in the first year or so, in 1874."[16] The world's oldest annual tennis tournament took place at Leamington Lawn Tennis Club in Birmingham in 1874.[17] This was three years before the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club would hold its first championships at Wimbledon, in 1877. The first Championships culminated a significant debate on how to standardize the rules.[16]

If you find reading boring then you can try watching free instructional videos on the internet. The best part about these videos is that it is made by tennis pros who are passionate about teaching tennis, so you won’t find the videos hard to understand. Between reading and watching the instructional videos, you will pick up important details about tennis on your own.
The string pattern of a tennis racquet plays a large part in how the ball is hit and what it does after impact. Racquets are typically strung in a grid with patterns of 16 by 18, 16 by 19, and 18 by 20. The first two options allow for a more open string pattern whereas the second pattern has strings that are more closely packed together, creating a variety of differences in how the ball reacts when hit. The type of racquet that you should choose largely depends on your tennis goals:
The ProCushion System, depicted in the illustration above, is the ultimate professional and residential cushioned option for tennis court surfaces. This 100% acrylic coating system is designed to provide optimum resilience and spin responsive play. The shock absorbing layers of the ProCushion system provide unparalleled player comfort at an affordable cost. Flexible acrylic binders maximize the feel of the rubber granules for decades after application.
Weights of a racket also vary between 7 ounces (200 g) unstrung and 12.6 ounces (360 g) strung. Until the 1980s, rackets weighted at "medium" were produced. "Heavy" rackets were produced during the height of the wood era (e.g. the 1960s), very sparingly. The "medium" weight is heavier than any of the rackets produced since it was discontinued by companies. Many professionals added weight to their rackets to improve stability. Many continue to do so. Pete Sampras added lead tape to make his racket have a 14 ounces (400 g) weight and Venus Williams is known for using a frame modified to be quite heavy, in terms of the recent times average. By contrast, Andy Roddick surprised many when he said he used a stock Pro Drive series model, series of racket which was light when compared with the rackets used by most top professionals. In both recreational and professional tennis, the trend has been away from heavy rackets and toward lighter rackets, despite the drawbacks from light rackets, such as increased twisting. Lawn tennis rackets originally flared outward at the bottom of the handle to prevent slippage. The rounded bottom was called a bark bottom after its inventor Matthew Barker. But by 1947, this style became superfluous.[clarification needed] More mass gives rackets "plow through", momentum that continues once the player has managed to get the racket into motion and which is more resistant to stoppage from the ball's momentum. This can give the perception that the racket produces shots with more power, although this is complicated by the typically slower stroke production. Higher mass typically involves a slower swing but more energy to execute the swing. More mass also provides more cushioning against ball impact shock, a source of injuries such as tennis elbow. However, high racket mass can cause fatigue in the shoulder area. Typically, it is safer for the body to have higher mass. More mass, additionally, provides more stability. It makes the racket more resistant to twisting forces and pushback. The drawbacks are that heavier rackets have lower maneuverability (reducing reaction time) and require more energy to move. As a racket gets heavier, the player finds it increasingly difficult to do fast reaction shots such as quick volleys and returns of serve. However, the additional mass can help with return of serve, in particular, by making the racket much more resistant to twist from a high-powered service. Light rackets have the additional drawback of making it easier for beginning players to use inappropriate wrist-dominant strokes, which often leads to injury. This is because poor stroke mechanics can be much easier to produce with a lightweight racket, such as in using one's wrist to mostly swing the racket. An extremely typical mistake beginning players make is to choke up heavily on the racket (to try to compensate for twist from a light racket, as well as too high racket angle upon impact) and use the wrist too much. The only professional well-known player to have had success with a strongly choked-up grip is Zina Garrison.
The concrete slab should be placed at a thickness of at least 4 inches, or 5 inches if subject to repeated freeze/thaw cycles. Munson's post-tensioned slabs are a minimum of 5 inches thick, with the post-tensioning cables spaced 3 feet apart. Before installing the slab, Munson lays down two layers of 10-mil polyethylene sheeting to reduce drag as the slab shrinks upon curing and to serve as a moisture-vapor barrier.
Size. The overall size of a regulation tennis court for doubles play is 60 x 120 feet (per the International Tennis Federation). However, you must allow additional space around the court perimeter to give the contractor room to work and to permit the installation of drainage, landscaping, and fencing. Munson recommends leaving at least 12 feet between the court sidelines and the closest fixed obstructions, and 21 feet between the baselines and fixed obstructions. Where space is limited, you can downsize to a slightly smaller court. ITF recommends a minimum court size of 56 x 114 feet. An NBA/NCAA regulation full-size basketball court is 94 feet long and 50 feet wide. For backyards without enough acreage for a pro court, half courts can suffice for one-on-one games. (See this diagram of court dimensions from Half Court Sports.)
The components of a tennis racket include a handle, known as the grip, connected to a neck which joins a roughly elliptical frame that holds a matrix of tightly pulled strings. For the first 100 years of the modern game, rackets were made of wood and of standard size, and strings were of animal gut. Laminated wood construction yielded more strength in rackets used through most of the 20th century until first metal and then composites of carbon graphite, ceramics, and lighter metals such as titanium were introduced. These stronger materials enabled the production of oversized rackets that yielded yet more power. Meanwhile, technology led to the use of synthetic strings that match the feel of gut yet with added durability.
I too began tennis as a retirement activity at age 65. I am now 74 and have found that I can only play with people at my age and level. I get nothing from watching a young, experienced player smash the ball past me and standing in front of every shot I hit, no matter where I aim it. If you would like to correspond and chat and compare notes further, I am at alsal38@me.com. My name is Al Salganick.
If you've tuned in to the Australian Open to catch the action but are feeling a little confused by what's happening on the court, don't fret. Tennis scoring can seem complicated at first, but once you get the hang of it, you'll feel like a seasoned fan. Here's a primer on scoring as the tournament heads toward the finals — so you can keep up with the matches!
This is Kirill’s twice-a-week way of reminding me, however inadvertently, that I started playing tennis too late. Footwork is key to tennis, and taking short strides as you are approaching the ball sets in place the underpinnings of everything that might lead to a good shot. Short steps allow one to be neither too close to nor too far astride the ball. But short steps are not what you learn when you spend your childhood playing football and baseball and basketball.
The string pattern of a tennis racquet plays a large part in how the ball is hit and what it does after impact. Racquets are typically strung in a grid with patterns of 16 by 18, 16 by 19, and 18 by 20. The first two options allow for a more open string pattern whereas the second pattern has strings that are more closely packed together, creating a variety of differences in how the ball reacts when hit. The type of racquet that you should choose largely depends on your tennis goals:
Currently, the Grand Slam tournaments are the only tour events that have mixed doubles contests. Grand Slam tournaments are held in conjunction with wheelchair tennis tournaments and junior tennis competitions. These tournaments also contain their own idiosyncrasies. For example, players at Wimbledon are required to wear predominantly white. Andre Agassi chose to skip Wimbledon from 1988 through 1990 citing the event's traditionalism, particularly its "predominantly white" dress code.[85] Wimbledon has its own particular methods for disseminating tickets, often leading tennis fans to follow complex procedures to obtain tickets.[86]
Before hiring a local contractor to build your play court, ask plenty of questions and do your research. Tennis court construction is a highly specialized field, so it's important to find a contractor with extensive experience. Kolkmann recommends using someone who is an active member of ASBA, with at least 15% to 20% of annual business devoted to designing and constructing sport surfaces. (ASBA has a searchable database of certified builder members.)
The tennis scoring system is a way to keep track of tennis matches (including pick-up games). Some tennis matches are played as part of a tournament. (Tournaments may have various categories, such as singles and doubles.) The great majority are organised as a single-elimination tournament, with competitors being eliminated after a single loss, and the overall winner being the last competitor without a loss. Optimally, such tournaments have a number of competitors equal to a power of two in order to fully fill out a single elimination bracket. In many professional and top-level amateur events, the brackets are seeded according to a recognised ranking system, in order to keep the best players in the field from facing each other until as late in the tournament as possible; additionally, if byes are necessary because of a less-than-full bracket, those byes in the first round are usually given to the highest-seeded competitors.

Size. The overall size of a regulation tennis court for doubles play is 60 x 120 feet (per the International Tennis Federation). However, you must allow additional space around the court perimeter to give the contractor room to work and to permit the installation of drainage, landscaping, and fencing. Munson recommends leaving at least 12 feet between the court sidelines and the closest fixed obstructions, and 21 feet between the baselines and fixed obstructions. Where space is limited, you can downsize to a slightly smaller court. ITF recommends a minimum court size of 56 x 114 feet. An NBA/NCAA regulation full-size basketball court is 94 feet long and 50 feet wide. For backyards without enough acreage for a pro court, half courts can suffice for one-on-one games. (See this diagram of court dimensions from Half Court Sports.)
From a poor defensive position on the baseline, the lob can be used as either an offensive or defensive weapon, hitting the ball high and deep into the opponent's court to either enable the lobber to get into better defensive position or to win the point outright by hitting it over the opponent's head. If the lob is not hit deeply enough into the other court, however, an opponent near the net may then hit an overhead smash, a hard, serve-like shot, to try to end the point.
Another benefit of post-tensioning is that contractors can build larger slabs using thinner concrete sections, and they don't have to install control joints which can interfere with play. "In order to build a reinforced concrete court that has the same structural capabilities as a post-tensioned court, we would have to install so much steel and concrete that the reinforced court would actually cost more," says Kolkmann. "Also, a reinforced court needs control joints, usually at a spacing of 10 to 15 feet, including in the playing area. Eventually these joints may widen, as well as any cracks that appear."
The set is won by the first player (or team) to have won at least six games and at least two games more than his or her opponent. Traditionally, sets would be played until both these criteria had been met, with no maximum number of games. To shorten matches, James Van Alen created a tie-breaker system, which was widely introduced in the early 1970s. If the score reaches 6–5 (or 5–6), one further game is played. If the leading player wins this game, the set is won 7–5 (or 5–7). If the trailing player wins the game, the score is tied at 6–6 and a special tiebreaker game is played. The winner of the tiebreak wins the set by a score of 7–6 (or 6–7).

In 1926, promoter C. C. Pyle established the first professional tennis tour with a group of American and French tennis players playing exhibition matches to paying audiences.[26][37] The most notable of these early professionals were the American Vinnie Richards and the Frenchwoman Suzanne Lenglen.[26][38] Once a player turned pro he or she was no longer permitted to compete in the major (amateur) tournaments.[26]
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