Another alternative set format are so called "short sets" where the first to four games to win by two games. In this format a tie-break is played at four games all. The ITF experimented with this format in low level Davis Cup matches, but the experiment was not continued. Nevertheless, this alternative remains as an acceptable alternative in the ITF rules of Tennis.[32]


The Challenger Tour for men is the lowest level of tournament administered by the ATP. It is composed of about 150 events and, as a result, features a more diverse range of countries hosting events.[92] The majority of players use the Challenger Series at the beginning of their career to work their way up the rankings. Andre Agassi, between winning Grand Slam tournaments, plummeted to World No. 141 and used Challenger Series events for match experience and to progress back up the rankings.[93] The Challenger Series offers prize funds of between US$25,000 and US$150,000.
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"Tennis Court" is written in the key of A minor and has a moderate tempo of 92 beats per minute. Lorde's vocal range on the song spans one octave, from G3 to G4.[22] As with Lorde's early releases, the song features a minimalist production, employing simple and sparse instrumentation.[23][24] It utilises reverbed synthesisers and an electronic pulse.[25] "Tennis Court" combines alternative pop, art pop and downtempo genres over hip hop-influenced beats.[26][27][28] Billboard editor Jason Lipshutz commented that "Tennis Court" conveys a darker aspect of pop music.[29] Nick Messtite from Forbes wrote that the track was reminiscent of The Postal Service's 2003 song "The District Sleeps Alone Tonight",[30] while Siân Rowe from NME compared the song to works by Lana Del Rey.[31] Clash's Joe Zadeh likened the electronic composition of "Tennis Court" to that of The xx's song "Together" from The Great Gatsby soundtrack (2013).[25]

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An alternative tie-break system called the "Coman Tie-Break" is sometimes used by the United States Tennis Association. Scoring is the same, but end changes take place after the first point and then after every four points. This approach allows the servers of doubles teams to continue serving from the same end of the court as during the body of the set. It also reduces the advantage the elements (e.g. wind and sun) could give playing the first six points of a seven-point tiebreak on one side of the court.
A well-constructed, properly maintained concrete court can provide decades of recreational enjoyment. But you'll have to pay to play. The cost of a regulation-size post-tensioned concrete tennis court with a cushioned surface can be double that of an equivalent asphalt court. "The basic asphalt court starts at about $40,000 to $45,000, with the average price probably in the mid $50s to low $60s. For a post-tensioned court, you'll pay in the low $100,000 range," says Kolkmann.

For right-handed players, the backhand is a stroke that begins on the left side of their body, continues across their body as contact is made with the ball, and ends on the right side of their body. It can be executed with either one hand or with both and is generally considered more difficult to master than the forehand. For most of the 20th century, the backhand was performed with one hand, using either an eastern or a continental grip. The first notable players to use two hands were the 1930s Australians Vivian McGrath and John Bromwich, but they were lonely exceptions. The two-handed grip gained popularity in the 1970s as Björn Borg, Chris Evert, Jimmy Connors, and later Mats Wilander and Marat Safin used it to great effect, and it is now used by a large number of the world's best players, including Rafael Nadal and Serena Williams.[77]
Then Kirill, to mix things up, lobbed one over my head. Move, think: I turned sideways, began running back using a crossover step, stopped, pointed up with my free right hand toward the descending ball, brought my racket back over my shoulder, contacted the ball with a wrist snap — and watched my overhead smash hook, decidedly, a long yard off the court.
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A denser pattern is often considered to deliver more control, at the expense of spin potential. A more open pattern is often believed to offer greater potential for power and spin. However, how much power is produced by a player can be strongly influenced by how a player adapts to the characteristics of the racket. Some players may hit harder with a dense string pattern, producing faster shots because of the added control from the dense pattern. Rackets, including those of much of the wood era, are marked with a recommended string tension range. The basic rule is that a lower tension creates more power (from the trampoline effect) and a higher string tension creates more control (less string deformation which results in a more predictable the power and angle of the departure from the string bed.) Some professionals used small-headed rackets with flexible-material strings (natural gut) strung at very high tension. Examples include Pete Sampras and Björn Borg. Some used large-headed rackets with very inflexible-material strings (kevlar). Andrei Agassi is an example. Many professionals during the standard wood era strung at relatively low tension and used natural gut string; both decisions were to increase the trampoline effect for more power. By contrast, almost every professional player today uses the much stiffer polyester string in their much stiffer rackets which also have larger heads and which tend to be lighter. Madeline Hauptman sold a line of rackets, called the MAD RAQ, which featured a Star of David pattern (a six-pointed figure consisting of two interlaced equilateral triangles), as it used three strings instead of two for stringing the racket. This pattern is used in snowshoes. This stringing pattern was said to feature less string notching, improving string lifespan. It was even claimed that many pro shops refused to carry the racket because less string breakage would reduce string and stringing service sales. It has also been claimed that the racket is more difficult to string than a two string racket. However, the Wilson T-2000-type requires a great deal more time for stringing than a typical racket and rackets of that series were very popular. Whatever the cause of the failure of the MAD RAQ in the marketplace, it was the only time a snowshoe pattern was used in tennis. Hauptman switched her racket line to a two string diamond pattern (PowerAngle). This pattern had already been used in much earlier rackets but had not had much popularity. It is said to be easier to string than the MAD RAQ but does not have the benefit of reduced string notching, at least not to the same degree. The claim is that this diagonal pattern offers more comfort than a traditional square pattern.
During informal play of tennis, especially at tennis clubs in the U.S. (also in other English speaking countries), score announcements are frequently shortened with the use of abbreviations. For example, a score 15 is replaced with "five", or in some cases "fif". "Love" is often substituted to indicate "zero". Similarly, the scores of 30 and 40 may sometimes be spoken as "three" or "four" respectively. A score of 15-all may sometimes be announced as "fives." To further confuse score announcements, a score of 30-all (30–30) may often be called "deuce", and the following point referred to as "ad in" or "ad out" (or "my ad" or "your ad"), depending on which player (or team) won the point. The logic for this is that a 30-all score is effectively the same as deuce (40–40).[34]
Steffi Graf is considered by some to be the greatest female player. Billie Jean King said in 1999, "Steffi is definitely the greatest women's tennis player of all time."[123] Martina Navratilova has included Graf on her list of great players.[123] In December 1999, Graf was named the greatest female tennis player of the 20th century by a panel of experts assembled by the Associated Press.[124] Tennis writer Steve Flink, in his book The Greatest Tennis Matches of the Twentieth Century, named her as the best female player of the 20th century, directly followed by Martina Navratilova.[125]
"Tennis Court" is written in the key of A minor and has a moderate tempo of 92 beats per minute. Lorde's vocal range on the song spans one octave, from G3 to G4.[22] As with Lorde's early releases, the song features a minimalist production, employing simple and sparse instrumentation.[23][24] It utilises reverbed synthesisers and an electronic pulse.[25] "Tennis Court" combines alternative pop, art pop and downtempo genres over hip hop-influenced beats.[26][27][28] Billboard editor Jason Lipshutz commented that "Tennis Court" conveys a darker aspect of pop music.[29] Nick Messtite from Forbes wrote that the track was reminiscent of The Postal Service's 2003 song "The District Sleeps Alone Tonight",[30] while Siân Rowe from NME compared the song to works by Lana Del Rey.[31] Clash's Joe Zadeh likened the electronic composition of "Tennis Court" to that of The xx's song "Together" from The Great Gatsby soundtrack (2013).[25]

The first year with Kirill was brutal. The prescribed continental grip felt awkward when I first began to serve. I thought I was turning my shoulder, properly, to prepare to hit a backhand, but wasn’t. I thought I was, properly, following through on my forehand, and wasn’t. It was the strangest thing. I had no sense at times of what my body was doing. And that, to some extent — a frustrating and at times embarrassing extent — continues. And it continues despite the incessant midplay appeals from Kirill to correct this, correct that. One of the things about having a coach is that no one has watched how I move more intently since I was a toddler.


Tennis magazine selected Martina Navratilova as the greatest female tennis player for the years 1965 through 2005.[126][127] Tennis historian and journalist Bud Collins has called Navratilova "arguably, the greatest player of all time."[128] Billie Jean King said about Navratilova in 2006, "She's the greatest singles, doubles and mixed doubles player who's ever lived."[129]


In a legal service, the ball travels over the net (without touching it) and into the diagonally opposite service box. If the ball hits the net but lands in the service box, this is a let or net service, which is void, and the server retakes that serve. The player can serve any number of let services in a point and they are always treated as voids and not as faults. A fault is a serve that falls long or wide of the service box, or does not clear the net. There is also a "foot fault", which occurs when a player's foot touches the baseline or an extension of the center mark before the ball is hit. If the second service is also a fault, the server double faults, and the receiver wins the point. However, if the serve is in, it is considered a legal service.

The server’s score is always announced first. So, for instance if the server has two points and his opponent, the receiver, has none, the score is 30-love. If a game is tied at 40-40, it is called “deuce”. If the server gets the next point, it’s called server advantage; if the receiver gets the next point, it’s called receiver advantage. It’s advantage because the player who has it only needs one more point to win. Should they not make this one point the game goes back to deuce. Scoring is perhaps a bit complicated, but necessary to understand as you learn to play tennis.
Badminton rackets are light, with top quality rackets weighing between about 70 and 95  grams (with guts ). Modern rackets are composed of carbon fiber composite (graphite reinforced plastic), which may be augmented by a variety of materials. Carbon fiber has an excellent strength to weight ratio, is stiff, and gives excellent kinetic energy transfer. Before the adoption of carbon fiber composite, rackets were made of wood to their excessive weight and cost.
It is imagined that clock faces were used on court, with a quarter move of the hand to indicate a score of 15, 30, and 45. When the hand moved to 60, the game was over. However, in order to ensure that the game could not be won by a one-point difference in players' scores, the idea of "deuce" was introduced. To make the score stay within the "60" ticks on the clock face, the 45 was changed to 40. Therefore, if both players had 40, the first player to score would receive ten, and that would move the clock to 50. If the player scored a second time before the opponent is able to score, they would be awarded another ten and the clock would move to 60. The 60 signifies the end of the game. However, if a player fails to score twice in a row, then the clock would move back to 40 to establish another "deuce".[4][5]
Thank you very much for this great analysis. I am 46 and started playing Tennis 6 months ago. I am a college lecturer and I have been playing 4 times a week. As you said practising gives me a lot to improve my game. Stressfull matches constricts our strokes definitely. Playing for fun is perfect. Your second point is also true; I can beat young players through my game stragety and tactics although their fitness level is far better than mine. Regards
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For our TW testers, this new version is not as comfortable as the DR: it is much firmer, especially on the upper part. On the positive side, the majority of the team was able to play effectively thanks to the EZONE 98 (305 g). Although it poses a bit of a control problem, this racquet offers more power and spin than the previous version, making it more dangerous on powerful hits.

Advantage sets sometimes continue much longer than tie-break sets. The 2010 Wimbledon first-round match between John Isner and Nicolas Mahut, which is the longest professional tennis match in history, notably ended with Isner winning the fifth set by 70–68. The match lasted in total 11 hours and five minutes, with the fifth set alone lasting eight hours, 11 minutes. Whoever wins by a margin of two wins the set, but this could take a very long time to finish.
So, as you now know, learning to serve is essential as you learn to play tennis. Here’s how (for right-handed players — left-handed players should reverse the directions): Stand with both feet behind the baseline. Assume a sideways stance with your left foot pointed towards the right hand net post. Hold the ball in your left hand. Raise your left hand throwing the ball upwards about one foot in front of your left foot and about eighteen inches above your reach. While the ball in the air, move your racket back and up. Hit the ball at full stretch, with your racket arm straight, at the highest point possible. You are switching the weight of your body from your back foot to your front foot to give added strength to your shot.
Many players around the world struggle to get their body weight going into the serve and don’t use their back leg to help them generate extra power on the serve but also balance the body once they land. By kicking back your right leg (left leg if left handed) when you land onto your front foot, you are helping the body to balance and that extra push from the ground during the upward phase on the swing will help you generate extra power on the tennis serve.
Aside from the historical significance of these events, they also carry larger prize funds than any other tour event and are worth double the number of ranking points to the champion than in the next echelon of tournaments, the Masters 1000 (men) and Premier events (women).[83][84] Another distinguishing feature is the number of players in the singles draw. There are 128, more than any other professional tennis tournament. This draw is composed of 32 seeded players, other players ranked in the world's top 100, qualifiers, and players who receive invitations through wild cards. Grand Slam men's tournaments have best-of-five set matches while the women play best-of-three. Grand Slam tournaments are among the small number of events that last two weeks, the others being the Indian Wells Masters and the Miami Masters.
The Shreveport City Court consists of four elected judges and their support staff. The court comprises several divisions which provide the necessary support to the judges, the legal community, and the citizens of Shreveport in Ward 4. Shreveport City Court has jurisdiction over all violations of city ordinances and concurrent jurisdiction over state misdemeanor cases. The court also has jurisdiction over civil matters, evictions, and matters involving peace bonds. 

The White House tennis court has been a favorite outdoor recreation area for many presidents and their families. Tennis courts were first installed in the Theodore Roosevelt years on the near south side of the West Wing. The court was moved further south around 1910, to where the swimming pool is today, and were enjoyed by the Wilson daughters and Coolidge sons, among others. Florence Harding hosted the first women's tennis exhibition at the White House. And it was on the old White House tennis court that Calvin Coolidge, Jr. got a blister after playing without socks, which led to his death by blood-poisoning at the age of 16.
Two hands give the player more control, while one hand can generate a slice shot, applying backspin on the ball to produce a low trajectory bounce. Reach is also limited with the two-handed shot. The player long considered to have had the best backhand of all time, Don Budge, had a powerful one-handed stroke in the 1930s and 1940s that imparted topspin onto the ball. Ken Rosewall, another player noted for his one-handed backhand, used a very accurate slice backhand through the 1950s and 1960s. A small number of players, notably Monica Seles, use two hands on both the backhand and forehand sides.
Even your choice of shoes, socks, and other clothing are important considerations when you learn to play tennis. As opposed to running shoes, tennis shoes are made to withstand side-to-side movement. They should have a herringbone tread for longer lasting protection and grip. Socks should be thick and able to absorb sweat, thereby preventing infections such as athlete’s foot. Generally, tennis clothing is white, a color chosen to best reflect the sun and keep the player cooler. (Wear the appropriate gear even when just beginning to learn to play tennis!)
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The origins of the 15, 30, and 40 scores are believed to be medieval French. The earliest reference is in a ballad by Charles D'Orleans in 1435 which refers to quarante cinque ("forty-five"), which gave rise to modern 40. In 1522 there is a sentence in Latin "we are winning 30, we are winning 45". The first recorded theories about the origin of 15 were published in 1555 and 1579. However, the origins of this convention remain obscure.[3]
Premier events for women form the most prestigious level of events on the Women's Tennis Association Tour after the Grand Slam tournaments. These events offer the largest rewards in terms of points and prize money. Within the Premier category are Premier Mandatory, Premier 5, and Premier tournaments. The Premier events were introduced in 2009 replacing the previous Tier I and II tournament categories. Currently four tournaments are Premier Mandatory, five tournaments are Premier 5, and twelve tournaments are Premier. The first tiering system in women's tennis was introduced in 1988. At the time of its creation, only two tournaments, the Lipton International Players Championships in Florida and the German Open in Berlin, comprised the Tier I category.
A set consists of a sequence of games played with service alternating between games, ending when the count of games won meets certain criteria. Typically, a player wins a set by winning at least six games and at least two games more than the opponent. If one player has won six games and the opponent five, an additional game is played. If the leading player wins that game, the player wins the set 7–5. If the trailing player wins the game (tying the set 6–6) a tie-break is played. A tie-break, played under a separate set of rules, allows one player to win one more game and thus the set, to give a final set score of 7–6. A "love" set means that the loser of the set won zero games, colloquially termed a 'jam donut' in the USA.[55] In tournament play, the chair umpire announces the winner of the set and the overall score. The final score in sets is always read with the winning player's score first, e.g. "6–2, 4–6, 6–0, 7–5".
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