A racket or racquet[1] is a sports implement consisting of a handled frame with an open hoop across which a network of strings or catgut is stretched tightly. It is used for striking a ball or shuttlecock in games such as squash, tennis, racquetball, and badminton. Collectively, these games are known as racket sports. Racket design and manufacturing has changed considerably over the centuries.
"The contractor the homeowner chooses should be aware of all the different surface types, speed of play, and the size and slope requirements for court construction," stresses Kolkmann. The contractor should also pay close attention to special considerations, he adds, such as the desired surface texture, the finish of the concrete required to ensure good bonding of the color coating, and provisions for fencing and net posts.
3. They often take only private lessons and play points when they play on their own – which means that they do not have enough repetitions in situations without pressure where they could automate their technique. In other words, they don’t practice enough – they only get more information in private lessons and do not groove the strokes in practice.
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Modular tile systems are the newest cushioning option on the market and offer the benefits of easy snap-together installation, long service life, and minimal maintenance. These systems feature interlocking, 12-inch square tiles made of high-impact polypropylene. The tiles rest slightly above the base surface to allow for better drainage and eliminate puddling. The downside of this cushioned comfort is the cost, which can run as high as high as $3 per square foot installed (or over $21,000 for a 60 x 120-foot tennis court).
This discussion is very timely for me because not only is it helping me stabilize my game, my daughter is now six and showing interest in “Playing tennis.” When she was four and five that meant catching and sweeping the ball along the floor with a racket back and forth with me, and now it means gripping the child’ racket her aunt brought her with both hands and hitting FH on the soft coach’s ball I toss or hit softly to her. She is a natural leftie, and I showed her a LH grip with two hands, but often she uses the RH backhand grip instead, and I just let her go with it. What is amazing to me is how good her balance is and how well she steps in and rotates through the stroke, pulling the racket through. She is already an accomplished dancer and seems to understand how her body moves, and that clearly helps, but her synthesis of gripping, which she was taught, swinging, which she imitates, and rotating with balance is just natural.
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Tie-break sets are now nearly universal in all levels of play, for all sets in a match; however, the tie-break is not a compulsory element in any set, and the actual formatting of sets and tie-breaks depends on the tournament director in tournaments, and, in private matches, on the players' agreement before play begins. Tie-breaks are not used in the final set in the Australian Open for singles before 2019, the French Open for singles, Wimbledon before 2019, or the Fed Cup, nor were they used for final sets in Davis Cup play or the Olympics before 2016. The US Open now uses a tiebreak in the final set, both in singles and in doubles, and was the only major tournament to use a tiebreak in the final set for singles before 2019, but the Australian Open and French Open do use a final set tiebreak in both men's and women's doubles.

It is imagined that clock faces were used on court, with a quarter move of the hand to indicate a score of 15, 30, and 45. When the hand moved to 60, the game was over. However, in order to ensure that the game could not be won by a one-point difference in players' scores, the idea of "deuce" was introduced. To make the score stay within the "60" ticks on the clock face, the 45 was changed to 40. Therefore, if both players had 40, the first player to score would receive ten, and that would move the clock to 50. If the player scored a second time before the opponent is able to score, they would be awarded another ten and the clock would move to 60. The 60 signifies the end of the game. However, if a player fails to score twice in a row, then the clock would move back to 40 to establish another "deuce".[4][5]


A racket or racquet[1] is a sports implement consisting of a handled frame with an open hoop across which a network of strings or catgut is stretched tightly. It is used for striking a ball or shuttlecock in games such as squash, tennis, racquetball, and badminton. Collectively, these games are known as racket sports. Racket design and manufacturing has changed considerably over the centuries.
Learning tennis to the extreme levels requires mental fortitude and athletic ability that only a few in this world can manage. But this should not deter you from learning this beautiful no matter what age group you belong to. You can become a pretty awesome tennis player that is satisfied with their game without spending countless hours on court or turning it into a full-time profession. It is just a matter of consistency, the right technique, and some willpower.

Weights of a racket also vary between 7 ounces (200 g) unstrung and 12.6 ounces (360 g) strung. Until the 1980s, rackets weighted at "medium" were produced. "Heavy" rackets were produced during the height of the wood era (e.g. the 1960s), very sparingly. The "medium" weight is heavier than any of the rackets produced since it was discontinued by companies. Many professionals added weight to their rackets to improve stability. Many continue to do so. Pete Sampras added lead tape to make his racket have a 14 ounces (400 g) weight and Venus Williams is known for using a frame modified to be quite heavy, in terms of the recent times average. By contrast, Andy Roddick surprised many when he said he used a stock Pro Drive series model, series of racket which was light when compared with the rackets used by most top professionals. In both recreational and professional tennis, the trend has been away from heavy rackets and toward lighter rackets, despite the drawbacks from light rackets, such as increased twisting. Lawn tennis rackets originally flared outward at the bottom of the handle to prevent slippage. The rounded bottom was called a bark bottom after its inventor Matthew Barker. But by 1947, this style became superfluous.[clarification needed] More mass gives rackets "plow through", momentum that continues once the player has managed to get the racket into motion and which is more resistant to stoppage from the ball's momentum. This can give the perception that the racket produces shots with more power, although this is complicated by the typically slower stroke production. Higher mass typically involves a slower swing but more energy to execute the swing. More mass also provides more cushioning against ball impact shock, a source of injuries such as tennis elbow. However, high racket mass can cause fatigue in the shoulder area. Typically, it is safer for the body to have higher mass. More mass, additionally, provides more stability. It makes the racket more resistant to twisting forces and pushback. The drawbacks are that heavier rackets have lower maneuverability (reducing reaction time) and require more energy to move. As a racket gets heavier, the player finds it increasingly difficult to do fast reaction shots such as quick volleys and returns of serve. However, the additional mass can help with return of serve, in particular, by making the racket much more resistant to twist from a high-powered service. Light rackets have the additional drawback of making it easier for beginning players to use inappropriate wrist-dominant strokes, which often leads to injury. This is because poor stroke mechanics can be much easier to produce with a lightweight racket, such as in using one's wrist to mostly swing the racket. An extremely typical mistake beginning players make is to choke up heavily on the racket (to try to compensate for twist from a light racket, as well as too high racket angle upon impact) and use the wrist too much. The only professional well-known player to have had success with a strongly choked-up grip is Zina Garrison.
A set consists of a sequence of games played with service alternating between games, ending when the count of games won meets certain criteria. Typically, a player wins a set by winning at least six games and at least two games more than the opponent. If one player has won six games and the opponent five, an additional game is played. If the leading player wins that game, the player wins the set 7–5. If the trailing player wins the game (tying the set 6–6) a tie-break is played. A tie-break, played under a separate set of rules, allows one player to win one more game and thus the set, to give a final set score of 7–6. A "love" set means that the loser of the set won zero games, colloquially termed a 'jam donut' in the USA.[55] In tournament play, the chair umpire announces the winner of the set and the overall score. The final score in sets is always read with the winning player's score first, e.g. "6–2, 4–6, 6–0, 7–5".
The referee, who is usually located off the court, is the final authority about tennis rules. When called to the court by a player or team captain, the referee may overrule the umpire's decision if the tennis rules were violated (question of law) but may not change the umpire's decision on a question of fact. If, however, the referee is on the court during play, the referee may overrule the umpire's decision (This would only happen in Davis Cup or Fed Cup matches, not at the World Group level, when a chair umpire from a non-neutral country is in the chair).[59]
As you are looking at tennis racquets in the store or shopping online it is important to note the head size of any racquet you are thinking about purchasing too. It stands to reason that the bigger the head is on your tennis racquet the bigger the sweet spot on it is also. A bigger sweet spot means you a less prone to mishitting the ball when you go to return it. Just be careful the head size is so big it adds extra weight or it throws off your game because you are not used to it.
Many players around the world struggle to get their body weight going into the serve and don’t use their back leg to help them generate extra power on the serve but also balance the body once they land. By kicking back your right leg (left leg if left handed) when you land onto your front foot, you are helping the body to balance and that extra push from the ground during the upward phase on the swing will help you generate extra power on the tennis serve.
A difficult shot in tennis is the return of an attempted lob over the backhand side of a player. When the contact point is higher than the reach of a two-handed backhand, most players will try to execute a high slice (under the ball or sideways). Fewer players attempt the backhand sky-hook or smash. Rarely, a player will go for a high topspin backhand, while themselves in the air. A successful execution of any of these alternatives requires balance and timing, with less margin of error than the lower contact point backhands, since this shot is a break in the regular pattern of play.
I am a very well versed USPTA tennis pro. I provide tennis instruction at all levels and for all ages. Wether you are a beginner, intermediate, advance, recreatioinal, club or tournamnet player, I have the right lesson plan for you. I have taught tennis for over 25 years and taught a wide varierty of students. From public facilities and private clubs to high school and unniversities. Wether you are starting new, hit a plateu or simply want to improve your game, I will taylor your lesson plan specific to your needs. Classes can be given in either English or Spanish. ... View Profile

Mark Beede is a USPTA, PTR, and ATPCA certified tennis coach, manager, and educator. Born and raised in Maine, USA, Beede received his undergraduate degree from Brandeis University and law degree from the University Of Maine School Of Law. After practicing law for sixteen years, Mark changed careers to tennis and moved to Hawaii to work with the USTA–Hawaii Pacific section and the Hawaii Pacific Tennis Foundation. Beede then moved to Istanbul, Turkey, to work as director of coaching education and special projects with Gavin Hopper at his international academy of professional players and elite juniors. Beede has a grown daughter and ... View Profile
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A tennis match is intended to be continuous.[65] Because stamina is a relevant factor, arbitrary delays are not permitted. In most cases, service is required to occur no more than 20 seconds after the end of the previous point.[65] This is increased to 90 seconds when the players change ends (after every odd-numbered game), and a 2-minute break is permitted between sets.[65] Other than this, breaks are permitted only when forced by events beyond the players' control, such as rain, damaged footwear, damaged racket, or the need to retrieve an errant ball. Should a player be determined to be stalling repeatedly, the chair umpire may initially give a warning followed by subsequent penalties of "point", "game", and default of the match for the player who is consistently taking longer than the allowed time limit.[66]

You definitely want to base your tennis racquet buying decision on your skill level too. Here are some examples. You probably don’t need to buy a $200 tennis racquet if you just want to go out and volley some balls with a friend to see if you like the sport. Also, if you are an advanced player who likes a little extra power and a racquet that helps you put you more spin on the ball as you return it, then a $70 tennis racquet is probably not going to fulfill that need.
One thing all test players could quickly agree on: The Burn FST 99 can be swung very fast. With all shots the club could be swung and maneuvered extremely fast. This way, we always got the club into the optimum stroke position, even with fast rallies. The comfort is also surprisingly high, considering that the racquet with a frame hardness of 72RA is actually rather hard.
Hunter/Killer: This 11.7oz beefcake is what the attack-happy Novak Djokovic uses to great effect. It is made for speed with the weight distributed toward the ends so that it aids movement in any direction. The 18×20 string arrangement is unusual, but geared toward flat hitters who want to be able to aim their slams or throw a little english onto a powerful stroke. This is probably the best one you can find if you like to attack the net rather than hanging back at the baseline. The 100 square-inch head is a little on the large side for catching sneaky balls that would otherwise get by you. The racket is extremely stable and balanced when moving, but you’ll definitely catch a few bad vibrations as you use it. [Purchase: $186]

"Tennis Court" was played during the 2013 Wimbledon Championships – Women's Singles Final by British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC).[88] "Tennis Court" was remixed by Australian musician Flume in 2014.[89] In July 2014 American producer Diplo released his version, titled the Diplo's Andre Agassi Reebok Pump Mix.[90] In 2014, "Tennis Court" was featured in the soundtrack of the PlayStation 4, Xbox One and Microsoft Windows versions of Grand Theft Auto V.[91]


A game point occurs in tennis whenever the player who is in the lead in the game needs only one more point to win the game. The terminology is extended to sets (set point), matches (match point), and even championships (championship point). For example, if the player who is serving has a score of 40-love, the player has a triple game point (triple set point, etc.) as the player has three consecutive chances to win the game. Game points, set points, and match points are not part of official scoring and are not announced by the chair umpire in tournament play.
The tiebreaker – more recently shortened to just "tiebreak", though both terms are still used interchangeably – was invented by James Van Alen and unveiled in 1965 as an experiment at the pro tournament he sponsored at Newport Casino, Rhode Island,[23] after an earlier, unsuccessful attempt to speed up the game by the use of his so-called "Van Alen Streamlined Scoring System" ("VASSS"). For two years before the Open Era, in 1955 and 1956, the United States Pro Championship in Cleveland, Ohio, was played by VASSS rules. The scoring was the same as that in table tennis, with sets played to 21 points and players alternating five services, with no second service. The rules were created partially to limit the effectiveness of the powerful service of the reigning professional champion, Pancho Gonzales. Even with the new rules, however, Gonzales beat Pancho Segura in the finals of both tournaments. Even though the 1955 match went to 5 sets, with Gonzales barely holding on to win the last one 21–19, it is reported to have taken 47 minutes to complete.[24] The fans attending the matches preferred the traditional rules, however, and in 1957 the tournament reverted to the old method of scoring.
Kolkmann stresses the importance of taking no shortcuts during the preparation phases. "For our courts, we require at least a 10-inch stone base over a geotextile fabric. We use 6 to 8 inches of clear stone [screened and washed limestone used as a drainage medium] and then a 2- to 4-inch lift of 3/4-inch minus stone. The entire court is surrounded by 4-inch drain tile to reduce the amount of surface and subsurface water that gets under a court. The lift of clear stone also allows the water to drain under the court much faster, should any get underneath. All the stone is laser-graded to the correct slope."
Muscle strain is one of the most common injuries in tennis.[79] When an isolated large-energy appears during the muscle contraction and at the same time body weight apply huge amount of pressure to the lengthened muscle, muscle strain can occur.[80] Inflammation and bleeding are triggered when muscle strain occurs, which can result in redness, pain and swelling.[80] Overuse is also common in tennis players of all levels. Muscle, cartilage, nerves, bursae, ligaments and tendons may be damaged from overuse. The repetitive use of a particular muscle without time for repair and recovery is the most common cause of injury.[80]
Another benefit of post-tensioning is that contractors can build larger slabs using thinner concrete sections, and they don't have to install control joints which can interfere with play. "In order to build a reinforced concrete court that has the same structural capabilities as a post-tensioned court, we would have to install so much steel and concrete that the reinforced court would actually cost more," says Kolkmann. "Also, a reinforced court needs control joints, usually at a spacing of 10 to 15 feet, including in the playing area. Eventually these joints may widen, as well as any cracks that appear."
A legal service starts a rally, in which the players alternate hitting the ball across the net. A legal return consists of the player or team hitting the ball before it has bounced twice or hit any fixtures except the net, provided that it still falls in the server's court. A player or team cannot hit the ball twice in a row. The ball must travel past the net into the other players' court. A ball that hits the net during a rally is still considered a legal return as long as it crosses into the opposite side of the court. The first player or team to fail to make a legal return loses the point. The server then moves to the other side of the service line at the start of a new point.[54]
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